What We Do
What We Do
What We Do
Drug Development
Other Diseases
Rewriting the Story
of Neurodegenerative Diseases
with Innovative Graphene-Based Nanomedicine
Drug Development for Neurodegenerative Diseases
Drug Development for Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
/ Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
/ Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC)
Current Approaches
For Parkinson’s disease, the most commonly prescribed drugs are dopamine precursors.
Mode of Action: Regulation of dopamine levels in the brain.
Major Drugs: Levodopa (L-DOPA) or dopamine agonists used with adjuvants (for side effect reduction and complication management).
Effects: Temporary symptom alleviation, partial delay of disease progression.
Unmet Needs: Fundamentally treat or delay the disease progress without serious side effects.
Market size
2016: $3,041 million (estimated)
2018: $3,425 million (estimated)
2025: $6,679 million (estimated)
Mechanism of action: Dopamine concentration regulation.
The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s is multifactorial. However, we understand a-synucleinopathy – provoked by abnormal fibrillation (clumping in fiber form) of a neuroprotein called a-synuclein is directly correlated to the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
At BIOGRAPHENE, we aim to rewrite the story of Parkinson’s disease by preventing the fibrillation of a-synuclein using graphene-based therapies.
Current Approaches
For Alzheimer’s disease, the most commonly prescribed drugs are choline-based drugs.
Mode of Action: Prevention of acetylcholine breakdown.
Major Cholinergic Drugs: Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine.
Noncholinergic drugs: Memantine (NMDA receptor antagonists).
Limitations: Temporary relief of symptoms (memory degradation), only partial delay in disease progression.
Unmet needs: Fundamentally treat or delay the disease progress without serious side effects.
Market size
2015: $ 3,299 million (estimated)
2020: $ 2,291 million (estimated)
2024: $ 5,449 million (estimated)
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of neurodegenerative diseases and is known to have a host of multifactorial pathogenesis mechanisms.At BIOGRAPHENE, we target the fibrillation of misfolded amyloid beta (Ab) and associated tau pathology.
The Basics of NPC
Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC) belongs to a group of diseases known as lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). LSDs are characterized by dysfunctional lysosome homeostasis, in other words, a loss of function or expression of lysosomal enzymes and proteins.
The pathogenesis of NPC is associated with the deficiency in either protein, NPC1 or NPC2, which harbor in the late endosomal/lysosomal (LE/LY) compartments. As the proteins play pivotal roles in intracellular cholesterol efflux machinery, defective expression of either protein leads to abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in the LE/LY compartments.
While the pathological manifestations are observed throughout the body, neuronal dysfunction and degeneration pertaining to the loss of purkinje cells in the cerebellum involve the most deleterious and ultimately fatal features in patients.
Current Approaches
Leading Candidate: Hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPbCD). Effects: Cholesterol depletion, partial delay of disease progression. Unmet Needs: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, side effects.
Potential Impact
Rare pediatric disease with an occurrence of 1:150,000.
Approximately 50% of cases present before 10 years of age.
An estimated 500 cases diagnosed worldwide.
Using our innovative graphene-based nanomaterials that are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), BIOGRAPHENE employs physically-induced cholesterol depletion therapy with the hope of extending the expected lifespan of patients.